Tensile Testing of Materials

$75.00

Tension tests provide information on the strength and ductility of materials under tensile stresses. This information may be useful in comparisons of materials, alloy development, quality control, and design.

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Description

Sample Submission Instructions

Ideally, samples should be at least 6” long and 3” wide.

Subsize specimen based on ASTM E8:

  • Gage length=25 mm
  • Width=6 mm
  • Radius of fillet=6 mm
  • Overal length=100 mm
  • Width of grip section=10 mm

The smallest sub-size round specimens are 2.5 mm diameter, with a 10 mm (L/D=4) or 12.5 mm (L/D=5) gage length. Other, smaller, specimen sizes are possible, however there are several issues to consider. If you are trying to compare elongations between different specimen sizes, you need to make sure that the L/D ration remains the same. Also, the grain size of the material can play a role in measured elongation – using a very small specimen with a large grained material is not a good idea.

Standards

Metals

  • ASTM E8/E8M-13: “Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials” (2013)
  • ISO 6892-1: “Metallic materials. Tensile testing. Method of test at ambient temperature” (2009)
  • ISO 6892-2: “Metallic materials. Tensile testing. Method of test at elevated temperature” (2011)
  • JIS Z2241 Method of tensile test for metallic materials

Composites

  • ASTM D3039/D 3039M: “Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials”

Flexible materials

  • ASTM D638 Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics
  • ASTM D828 Standard test method for tensile properties of paper and paperboard using constant-rate-of-elongation apparatus
  • ASTM D882 Standard test method for tensile properties of thin plastic sheeting
  • ISO 37 rubber, vulcanized or thermoplastic—determination of tensile stress–strain properties

 

Significance and Use

Tensile testing might have a variety of purposes, such as:

  • Select a material or item for an application
  • Predict how a material will perform in use: normal and extreme forces.
  • Determine if, or verify that, the requirements of a specification, regulation, or contract are met
  • Decide if a new product development program is on track: Demonstrate proof of concept
  • Demonstrate the utility of a proposed patent
  • Provide standard data for other scientific, engineering, and quality assurance functions
  • Provide a basis for Technical communication
  • Provide a technical means of comparison of several options
  • Provide evidence in legal proceedings

Tension tests provide information on the strength and ductility of materials under uniaxial tensile stresses. This information may be useful in comparisons of materials, alloy development, quality control, and design under certain circumstances.

These test methods are considered satisfactory for acceptance testing of commercial shipments. The test methods have been used extensively in the trade for this purpose.

These test methods cover the tension testing of metallic materials in any form at room temperature, specifically, the methods of determination of yield strength, yield point elongation, tensile strength, elongation, and reduction of area.

The gauge lengths for most round specimens are required to be 4D for E8 and 5D for E8M. The gauge length is the most significant difference between E8 and E8M test specimens. Test specimens made from powder metallurgy (P/M) materials are exempt from this requirement by industry-wide agreement to keep the pressing of the material to a specific projected area and density.

Exceptions to the provisions of these test methods may need to be made in individual specifications or test methods for a particular material. For examples, see Test Methods and Definitions A370 and Test Methods B557, and B557M.

Room temperature shall be considered to be 10 to 38°C [50 to 100°F] unless otherwise specified.

Referenced Documents

ASTM Standards

  • A356/A356M Specification for Steel Castings, Carbon, Low Alloy, and Stainless Steel, Heavy-Walled for Steam Turbines
  • A370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products
  • B557 Test Methods for Tension Testing Wrought and Cast Aluminum- and Magnesium-Alloy Products
  • B557M Test Methods for Tension Testing Wrought and Cast Aluminum- and Magnesium-Alloy Products (Metric)
  • D1566 Terminology Relating to Rubber
  • E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines
  • E6 Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing
  • E29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications
  • E83 Practice for Verification and Classification of Extensometer Systems
  • E345 Test Methods of Tension Testing of Metallic Foil
  • E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
  • E1012 Practice for Verification of Testing Frame and Specimen Alignment Under Tensile and Compressive Axial Force Application
  • E1856 Guide for Evaluating Computerized Data Acquisition Systems Used to Acquire Data from Universal Testing Machines
  • E2658 Practices for Verification of Speed for Material Testing Machines

ICS Number Code 77.040.10 (Mechanical testing of metals)

Citation

ASTM E8 / E8M-16a, Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2016, www.astm.org